What is the 3P Model?

The 3P model is a systematic approach to decision making within the risk management process.

The 3P includes three primary components: Perceive, Process, and Perform. This simple-to-remember process provides a consistent method for the pilot to identity a risk and take appropriate action.

When using this model, the pilot Perceives a change or a hazard, Processes risk or evaluates alternatives, and Performs an action to minimize or accept risk. The 3P model incorporates other models or methods within each section.

Perceive: Use the PAVE checklist to identity a change in the primary risk elements of: Pilot, Aircraft, enVironment, External pressures.

Process: Evaluate the risk level and probability considering the consequences, alternatives, reality, and external pressures (CARE).

Perform: Apply appropriate risk management techniques given the risk level.  Options include Transferring the risk, Eliminating the risk, Accepting the risk and Mitigating the risk to an acceptable level (TEAM).

Risk Management 3 P modal diagram

There are other decision-making models as well, such as the DECIDE model for decisions, or the 5P model for evaluating the risk elements.  There is no requirement to use a specific model, but the pilot should develop a systematic approach to identify and minimize risk.


FAA-H-8083-21A Helicopter Flying Handbook pg. 14-11
FAA-P-8740-69 Aeronautical Decision Making

Other Risk Management Topics